In METRO Cash & Carry Großmärkten in Deutschland stehen wir Ihnen mit exzellentem Service und tiefgehender Branchenkompetenz zur Seite. Schleswig (Schleswig-Holstein), Lollfuß Nord-Film Theater GmbH Gf:A. Menzel mind neuer Kinoname: Metro-Palast. Hermann, später Elke. Willkommen in Ihrem METRO GASTRO- Großmarkt Kiel, dem Partner für Profis.
Online Casino Jamaica - Best Jamaica Casinos Online 2018: fußballergebnisse 2 bundesliga
|Beste Spielothek in Jahrsdorf finden||Kings casino in rozvadov cz|
|MERKUR CASINO LAMPERTHEIM||Gabriel jesus bayern|
|Metro schleswig holstein||Em spiele deutschland|
|GOLDEN RIVIERA FLASH CASINO||Erst vor wenigen Wochen verschaffte sich Ceconomy mit einer Kapitalerhöhung frisches Beste Spielothek in Heddesdorf finden, um etwas Spielraum zu gewinnen. Ausgesetzter Rottweiler an der B Die Aufspaltung hat bislang wenig Erfolg gebracht. Juli weiter vom Us open terminplan der Trennung überzeugt. Diese Handelsketten gehören zusammen. Doch sieht Metro-Chef Koch die Talsohle inzwischen durchschritten. Doch sieht Metro-Chef Koch die Talsohle inzwischen durchschritten.|
|Beste Spielothek in Hochmoor finden||Beste Spielothek in Hohnhausen finden|
Metro Schleswig Holstein VideoSchleswig Holstein rollt 1
This complicated matters further, as many Danes wished for the new democratic constitution to apply for all Danes, including in the Danes in Schleswig.
The constitutions of Holstein and Schleswig were dominated by the Estates system, giving more power to the most affluent members of society, with the result that both Schleswig and Holstein were politically dominated by a predominantly German class of landowners.
Thus, two systems of government co-existed within the same state: The three units were governed by one cabinet, consisting of liberal ministers of Denmark who urged for economical and social reforms, and conservative ministers of the Holstein nobility who opposed political reform.
This caused a deadlock for practical lawmaking. Moreover, Danish opponents of this so-called Unitary State Helstaten feared that Holstein's presence in the government and, at the same time, membership in the German Confederation would lead to increased German interference with Schleswig, or even into purely Danish affairs.
In Copenhagen, the Palace and most of the administration supported a strict adherence to the status quo. Same applied to foreign powers such as Great Britain, France and Russia, who would not accept a weakened Denmark in favour of the German states, nor acquisition of Holstein with its important naval harbour of Kiel and control of the entrance to the Baltic by Prussia.
In April , in utter weariness Prussia proposed a definitive peace on the basis of the status quo ante bellum and the postponement of all questions as to mutual rights.
To Palmerston the basis seemed meaningless, the proposed settlement to settle nothing. The emperor Nicholas, openly disgusted with Frederick William's weak-kneed truckling to the Revolution, again intervened.
To him the duke of Augustenburg was a rebel; Russia had guaranteed Schleswig to the Danish crown by the treaties of and ; as for Holstein, if the king of Denmark was unable to deal with the rebels there, he himself would intervene as he had done in Hungary.
The threat was reinforced by the menace of the European situation. Austria and Prussia were on the verge of war, The sole hope of preventing Russia from throwing her sword into the scale of Austria lay in settling the Schleswig-Holstein question as Russia desired.
Frederick William's only alternative, an alliance with Louis Napoleon , who already dreamed of acquiring the Rhine frontier for France at the price of his aid in establishing German sea-power by the cession of the duchies, was abhorrent to him.
A peace treaty was signed between Prussia and Denmark on July 2, Both parties reserved all their antecedent rights.
Denmark was satisfied, since the treaty empowered the King to restore his authority in Holstein as Duke with or without the consent of the German Confederation.
Danish troops now marched in to coerce the refractory duchies; but while the fighting went on negotiations among the powers continued, and on August 2, Great Britain, France, Russia and Norway-Sweden signed a protocol, to which Austria subsequently adhered, approving the principle of restoring the integrity of the Danish monarchy.
The provisional Schleswig government was deposed, as were the Lutheran general superintendents, who were even exiled from the Oldenburg-ruled monarchies in Their position remained vacant with Superintendent Christoph Carl Julius Asschenfeldt officiating per pro.
The Copenhagen government, which in May made an abortive attempt to come to an understanding with the inhabitants of the duchies by convening an assembly of notables at Flensburg , issued on December 6, a project for the future organisation of the monarchy on the basis of the equality of its constituent states, with a common ministry; and on January 28, a royal letter announced the institution of a unitary state which, while maintaining the fundamental constitution of Denmark, would increase the parliamentary powers of the estates of the two duchies.
This proclamation was approved by Prussia and Austria, and by the German Federal Assembly insofar as it affected Holstein and Lauenburg.
The question of the succession was the next approached. Only the question of the Augustenburg succession made an agreement between the powers impossible, and on March 31, the duke of Augustenburg resigned his claim in return for a money payment.
Another factor which doomed Danish interests, was that not only was the power of German culture rising, but so were conflicts with German States in the south, namely Prussia and Austria.
Schleswig and Holstein would, of course and inevitably, become the subject of a territorial dispute involving military encounters among the three states, Denmark, Prussia and Austria.
Danish government found itself nervous as it became expected that Frederik VII would leave no son, and that upon his death, under Salic law , the possible Crown Princess would have no actual legal right to Schleswig and Holstein of course that was debatable, as the dynasty itself had received Holstein by Christian I being son of the sister of last Schauenburg count of Holstein, but Salic Law was convenient to German nationalists in this case, furthermore Schleswig was a fief to the kings of Denmark with the Danish Kings Law, Kongeloven.
Ethnic-Danish citizens of Schleswig South Jutland panicked over the possibility of being separated from their mother country , agitated against the German element, and demanded that Denmark declare Schleswig an integral part of Denmark, which outraged German nationalists.
Holstein was part of the territory of the German Confederation , with which an annexation of whole Schleswig and Holstein to Denmark would have been incompatible.
This gave a good pretext to Prussia to engage in war with Denmark in order to seize Schleswig and Holstein for itself, both by pleasing nationalists by 'liberating' Germans from Danish rule, and by implementing the law of the German Confederation.
After the renunciation by the emperor of Russia and others of their eventual rights, Charlotte, Landgravine of Hesse, sister of Christian VIII , and her son Prince Frederick transferred their rights to the latter's sister Louise, who in her turn transferred them to her husband Prince Christian of Glücksburg.
On May 8, , this arrangement received international sanction by the protocol signed in London by the five great powers and Norway and Sweden.
The protocol of London, while consecrating the principle of the integrity of Denmark, stipulated that the rights of the German Confederation in Holstein and Lauenburg should remain unaffected.
It was, in fact, a compromise, and left the fundamental issues unsettled. The German Federal Assembly had not been represented in London, and the terms of the protocol were regarded in German states as a humiliation.
As for the Danes, they were far from being satisfied with the settlement, which they approved only insofar as it gave them a basis for a more vigorous prosecution of their unionist schemes.
On February 15 and June 11, Frederick VII, after consulting the estates, promulgated special constitutions for Schleswig and Holstein respectively, under which the provincial assemblies received certain very limited powers.
On July 26, he published a common Danish constitution for the whole monarchy; it was little more unitary than a veiled absolutism.
In the Lutheran church bodies of Schleswig and Holstein, until then led by general superintendents, until titled general provosts, were converted into Lutheran dioceses called Stift Schleswig Danish: Slesvig Stift and Stift Holstein Danish: Holsten Stift , each presided by a Lutheran bishop.
On October 2, the common Danish constitution was superseded by a parliamentary constitution of a modified type.
The legality of this constitution was disputed by the two German great powers, on the ground that the estates of the duchies had not been consulted as promised in the royal letter of December 6, On February 11, the federal assembly of the German Confederation refused to admit its validity so far as Holstein and Lauenburg were concerned.
In the early s the "Schleswig-Holstein Question" once more became the subject of lively international debate, but with the difference that support for the Danish position was in decline.
The Crimean War had crippled the power of Russia , and France was prepared to renounce support for Danish interests in the duchies in exchange for compensations to herself elsewhere.
Queen Victoria and her consort Prince Albert had sympathy for the German position, but it was tempered by British ministers who saw the growth of German sea-power in the Baltic Sea as a danger to British naval supremacy, and consequently Great Britain sided with the Danes.
To that was added a grievance about tolls charged on shipping passing through the Danish Straits to pass between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.
To avoid that expense, Prussia planned the Kiel Canal , which could not be built as long as Denmark ruled Holstein. The secessionist movement continued throughout the s and s, as proponents of German unification increasingly expressed the wish to include two Danish-ruled provinces Holstein and Schleswig in an eventual 'Greater Germany'.
Holstein was completely German, while the situation in Schleswig was complex. It was linguistically mixed between German, Danish and North Frisian.
The population was predominantly of Danish ethnicity, but many of them had switched to the German language since the 17th century. German culture dominated in clergy and nobility, whereas Danish had a lower social status.
For centuries, when the rule of the King was absolute, these conditions had created few tensions. When ideas of democracy spread and national currents emerged from ca.
The medieval Treaty of Ribe had proclaimed that Schleswig and Holstein were indivisible, however in another context. As the events of threatened to politically divide the two duchies, Prussia was handed a good pretext to engage in war with Denmark to seize Schleswig-Holstein for itself, both by pleasing nationalists in "liberating" Germans from Danish rule, and by implementing the law of the German Confederation.
On July 29, , In response to the renewed Danish claim to Schleswig as integral Danish territory, the German Federal Assembly instructed by Bismarck threatened German federal intervention.
Even this concession violated the principle of the indissoluble union of the duchies, but the German Federal Assembly, fully occupied at home, determined to refrain from further action till the Danish parliament should make another effort to pass a law or budget affecting the whole kingdom without consulting the estates of the duchies.
In July this happened, and in the spring of the estates were once more at open odds with the Danish government.
The German Federal Assembly now prepared for armed intervention; but it was in no condition to carry out its threats, and Denmark decided, on the advice of Great Britain, to ignore it and open negotiations directly with Prussia and Austria as independent powers.
These demanded the restoration of the union between the duchies, a question beyond the competence of the Confederation. Denmark replied with a refusal to recognise the right of any foreign power to interfere in her relations with Schleswig; to which Austria, anxious to conciliate the smaller German princes, responded with a vigorous protest against Danish infringements of the compact of Lord John Russell now intervened, on behalf of Great Britain, with a proposal for a settlement of the whole question on the basis of the independence of the duchies under the Danish crown, with a decennial budget for common expenses to be agreed on by the four assemblies, and a supreme council of state consisting in relative proportion of Danes and Germans.
This was accepted by Russia and by the German great powers, and Denmark found herself isolated in Europe.
The international situation, however, favoured a bold attitude, and she met the representations of the powers with a flat defiance. The retention of Schleswig as an integral part of the monarchy was to Denmark a matter of life and death; the German Confederation had made the terms of the protocol of , defining the intimate relations between the duchies, the excuse for unwarrantable interference in the internal affairs of the Denmark.
On March 30, , as a result of this, a royal compact's proclamation was published at Copenhagen repudiating the compacts of , and, by defining the separate position of Holstein in the Danish monarchy, negativing once for all the German claims upon Schleswig.
As the heirless king Frederick VII grew older, Denmark's successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the king's future death.
Both duchies were ruled by the kings of Denmark and shared a long mutual history, but their association with Denmark was extremely complex.
Holstein was a member of the German Confederation. Denmark, and Schleswig as it was a Danish fief , were outside the German Confederation.
German nationalists claimed that the succession laws of the two duchies were different from the similar law in Denmark.
Danes, however, claimed that this only applied to Holstein, but that Schleswig was subject to the Danish law of succession. A further complication was a much-cited reference in the Treaty of Ribe stipulating that Schleswig and Holstein should "be together and forever unseparated".
As counter-evidence, and in favour of the Danish view, rulings of a Danish clerical court and a German Emperor, of and respectively, were produced.
According to the line of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would now pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg the future King Christian IX , the crown of Holstein was considered to be more problematic.
This decision was challenged by a rival pro-German branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenburg Danish: Augustenborg who demanded, like in , the crowns of both Schleswig and Holstein.
This happened at a particularly critical time as work on a new constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed with the draft awaiting his signature.
In the Duchy of Lauenburg the personal union with Denmark ended and her estates elected a new dynasty in The new so-called November Constitution would not annex Schleswig to Denmark directly, but instead create a joint parliament with the medieval title Rigsraadet to govern the joint affairs of both Denmark and Schleswig.
Both entities would maintain their individual parliaments as well. A similar initiative, but also including Holstein, had been attempted in , but proved a failure because of the opposition of the people in Schleswig and their support in German states.
The form of government shall be that of a constitutional monarchy. Royal authority shall be inherited. The law of succession is specified in the law of succession of July 31, applying for the entire Danish monarchy.
Denmark's new king, Christian IX , was in a position of extraordinary difficulty. The first sovereign act he was called upon to perform was to sign the new constitution.
To sign was to violate the terms of the London Protocol which would probably lead to war. To refuse to sign was to place himself in antagonism to the united sentiment of his Danish subjects, which was the basis of his reign.
He chose what seemed the lesser of two evils, and on November 18 signed the constitution. The news was seen as a violation of the London Protocol , which prohibited such a change in the status quo.
It was received in German states with manifestations of excitement and anger. Frederick, duke of Augustenburg, son of the prince who in had renounced the succession to the duchies, now claimed his rights on the ground that he had had no share in the renunciation.
In Holstein an agitation in his favour had begun from the first, and this was extended to Schleswig when the terms of the new Danish constitution became known.
His claim was enthusiastically supported by the German princes and people, and in spite of the negative attitude of Austria and Prussia the federal assembly at the initiative of Otto von Bismarck decided to occupy Holstein pending the settlement of the decree of succession.
On December 24, , Saxon and Hanoverian troops marched into the German duchy of Holstein in the name of the German Confederation , and supported by their presence and by the loyalty of the Holsteiners the duke of Augustenburg assumed the government under the style of Duke Frederick VIII.
It was clear to Bismarck that Austria and Prussia, as parties to the London Protocol of , must and uphold the succession as fixed by it, and that any action they might take in consequence of the violation of that compact by Denmark must be so correct as to deprive Europe of all excuse for interference.
The publication of the new constitution by Christian IX was in itself sufficient to justify them. As to the ultimate outcome of their effective intervention, that could be left to the future to decide.
Austria had no clear views. King William wavered between his Prussian feeling and a sentimental sympathy with the duke of Augustenburg.
Bismarck alone knew exactly what he wanted, and how to attain it. After Christian IX of Denmark merged Schleswig not Holstein into Denmark in following his accession to the Danish throne that year, Bismarck's diplomatic abilities finally convinced Austria to participate in the war, with the assent of the other European large powers and under the auspices of the German Confederation.
The protests of Great Britain and Russia against the action of the German federal assembly, together with the proposal of Count Beust , on behalf of Saxony, that Bavaria should bring forward in that assembly a formal motion for the recognition of Duke Frederick's claims, helped Bismarck to persuade Austria that immediate action must be taken.
On December 28 a motion was introduced in the federal assembly by Austria and Prussia, calling on the Confederation to occupy Schleswig as a pledge for the observance by Denmark of the compacts of This implied the recognition of the rights of Christian IX, and was indignantly rejected; whereupon the federal assembly was informed that the Austrian and Prussian governments would act in the matter as independent European powers.
On January 16, the agreement between them was signed. An article drafted by Austria, intended to safeguard the settlement of , was replaced at Bismarck's instance by another which stated that the two powers would decide only in concert on the relations of the duchies, and that they would in no case determine the question of the succession save by mutual consent; and Bismarck issued an ultimatum to Denmark demanding that the November Constitution should be abolished within 48 hours.
This was rejected by the Danish government. The Austrian and Prussian forces crossed the Eider into Schleswig on February 1, , and war was inevitable.
An invasion of Denmark itself had not been part of the original programme of the allies; but on February 18 some Prussian hussars , in the excitement of a cavalry skirmish, crossed the frontier and occupied the village of Kolding.
Bismarck determined to use this circumstance to revise the whole situation. He urged upon the Austrians the necessity for a strong policy, so as to settle once for all not only the question of the duchies but the wider question of the German Confederation; and Austria reluctantly consented to press the war.
On March 11 a fresh agreement was signed between the powers, under which the compacts of were declared to be no longer valid, and the position of the duchies within the Danish monarchy as a whole was to be made the subject of a friendly understanding.
Meanwhile, however, Lord John Russell on behalf of Great Britain, supported by Russia, France and Sweden, had intervened with a proposal that the whole question should once more be submitted to a European conference.
The German powers agreed on condition that the compacts of London Protocol should not be taken as a basis, and that the duchies should be bound to Denmark by a personal tie only.
But the proceedings of the conference, which opened at London on April 25, only revealed the inextricable tangle of the issues involved. Beust, on behalf of the Confederation, demanded the recognition of the Augustenburg claimant; Austria leaned to a settlement on the lines of that of ; Prussia, it was increasingly clear, aimed at the acquisition of the duchies.
The first step towards the realization of this latter ambition was to secure the recognition of the absolute independence of the duchies, and this Austria could only oppose at the risk of forfeiting her whole influence among the German states.
The two powers, then, agreed to demand the complete political independence of the duchies bound together by common institutions.
The next move was uncertain. As to the question of annexation Prussia would leave that open, but made it clear that any settlement must involve the complete military subordination of Schleswig-Holstein to herself.
This alarmed Austria, which had no wish to see a further extension of Prussia's already overgrown power, and she began to champion the claims of the duke of Augustenburg.
This contingency, however, Bismarck had foreseen and himself offered to support the claims of the duke at the conference if he would undertake to subordinate himself in all naval and military matters to Prussia, surrender Kiel for the purposes of a Prussian war-harbour, give Prussia the control of the projected Kiel Canal , and enter the Prussian Customs Union.
On this basis, with Austria's support, the whole matter might have been arranged without—as Beust pointed out Mem. Austria, the other leading state of the German Confederation, was reluctant to engage in a "war of liberation" because of its own problems with various nationalities.
After Christian IX of Denmark merged Schleswig into Denmark in following his accession to the Danish throne that year, Bismarck 's diplomatic abilities finally convinced Austria to participate in the war, with the assent of the other European large powers and under the auspices of the German Confederation.
On June 25 the London conference broke up without having arrived at any conclusion. On the 24th, in view of the end of the truce, Austria and Prussia had arrived at a new agreement, the object of the war being now declared to be the complete separation of the duchies from Denmark.
As the result of the short campaign that followed, the preliminaries of a treaty of peace were signed on August 1, the king of Denmark renouncing all his rights in the duchies in favour of the emperor of Austria and the king of Prussia.
The definitive treaty was signed at Vienna on October 30, By Article XIX, a period of six years was allowed during which the inhabitants of the duchies might opt for Danish nationality and transfer themselves and their goods to Denmark; and the right of indigency was guaranteed to all, whether in the kingdom or the duchies, who enjoyed it at the time of the exchange of ratifications of the treaty.
This Second War of Schleswig of was presented by invaders to be an implementation of the law of the German Confederation Bundesexekution.
Denmark capitulated and Prussia and Austria took over the administration of Schleswig and Holstein respectively under the Gastein Convention of August 14, Already in the Prussian occupying authorities had deposed Bishop Sechmann Boesen.
It did not take long for disagreements between Prussia and Austria over both the administration and the future of the duchies to surface.
Bismarck used these as a pretext to engineer what became the Austro-Prussian War of Austria's defeat at the Battle of Königgrätz was followed by the dissolution of the German Confederation and Austria's withdrawal from Holstein, which, along with Schleswig, in turn was annexed by Prussia.
Following the Austro-Prussian War of , section five of the Peace of Prague stated that the people of Northern Schleswig should be granted the right to a referendum on whether they would remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule.
This promise was never fulfilled, neither by Prussia, nor by united Germany as of In any case, because of the mix of Danes and Germans who lived there and the various feudal obligations of the players, the Schleswig-Holstein Question problem was considered intractable by many.
Lord Palmerston said of the issue that only three people understood the Schleswig-Holstein question: This was convenient for Palmerston, as the government knew that Britain was almost powerless on the continent and had no chance of countering Prussia's military or manufacturing might.
Meanwhile, in , the Danish royal family, impressed by Victoria's trappings of Empire, arranged the marriage of the Princess to the future Edward VII, so helping to reverse the Anglo-German alliance, which led to the war.
Niall Ferguson in Empire quotes Kitchener in The Schleswig-Holstein Question from this time onwards became merged in the larger question of the general relations of Austria and Prussia, and its later developments are a result of the war of It survived, however, as between Danes and Germans, though narrowed down to the question of the fate of the Danish population of the northern duchy.
This question is of great interest to students of international law and as illustrating the practical problems involved in the assertion of the modern principle of nationality.
The annexed states became provinces of Prussia , the Holstein and Schleswig merged in the Province of Schleswig-Holstein. The position of the Danes in Schleswig after the cession was determined, so far as treaty rights are concerned, by two instruments: Under Article XIX of the former treaty the Danish subjects domiciled in the ceded territories had the right, within six years of the exchange of ratifications, of opting for the Danish nationality and transferring themselves, their families and their personal property to Denmark, while keeping their landed property in the duchies.
The last paragraph of the Article ran:. By Article V of the Peace of Prague, Schleswig was ceded by Austria to Prussia with the reservation that the populations of the North of Schleswig shall be again united with Denmark in the event of their expressing a desire so to be by a vote freely exercised.
Taking advantage of the terms of these treaties, about 50, Danes from North Schleswig out of a total population of some , opted for Denmark and were expelled across the frontier, pending the plebiscite which was to restore their country to them.
The plebiscite never came. Its inclusion in the treaty had been no more than a diplomatic device to save the face of the emperor Napoleon III ; Prussia had from the first no intention of surrendering an inch of the territory that had been conquered; the outcome of the Franco-German War made it unnecessary to pretend that the plebiscite might occur; and by the Treaty of Vienna of October 11, , the clause relating to the plebiscite was formally abrogated with the assent of Austria.
Meanwhile, the Danish optants, disappointed of their hopes, had begun to stream back over the frontier into Schleswig. By doing so they lost, under the Danish law, their rights as Danish citizens, without acquiring those of Prussian subjects; and this disability was transmitted to their children.
By Article XIX of the Treaty of , indeed, they should have been secured the rights of indigenacy, which, while falling short of complete citizenship, implied, according to Danish law, all the essential guarantees for civil liberty.
But in then Prussian law the right of Indigenat is not clearly differentiated from the status of a subject; and the supreme court at Kiel decided in several cases that those who had opted for Danish citizenship had forfeited their rights under the Indigenat paragraph of the Treaty of Vienna.
Thus, in the frontier districts, a large and increasing class of people dwelt in a sort of political limbo, having lost their Danish citizenship through ceasing to be domiciled in Denmark, and unable to acquire Prussian citizenship because they had failed to apply for it within the six years stipulated in the Treaty of Their exclusion from the rights of Prussian subjects was due, however, to causes other than the letter of the treaty.
The Danes, in spite of every discouragement, never ceased to strive for the preservation and extension of their national traditions and language; the Germans were equally bent on effectually absorbing these recalcitrant Teutons into the general life of the German empire; and to this end the uncertain status of the Danish optants was a useful means.
Danish agitators of German nationality could not be touched so long as they were careful to keep within the limits of the law; pro-Danish newspapers owned and staffed by German subjects enjoyed immunity in accordance with the constitution, which guarantees the liberty of the press.
The case of the optants was far different. These unfortunates, who numbered a large proportion of the population, were subject to domiciliary visits, and to arbitrary perquisitions, arrest and expulsion.
When the pro-Danish newspapers, after the expulsion of several optant editors, were careful to appoint none but German subjects, the vengeance of the authorities fell upon optant type-setters and printers.
The Prussian police, indeed, developed an almost superhuman [ clarification needed ] capacity for detecting optants: One instance, out of many, may serve to illustrate the type of offence that served as excuse for this systematic official persecution.
To add to the misery, the Danish government refused to allow the Danish optants expelled by Prussia to settle in Denmark, though this rule was modified by the Danish Nationality Law of in favour of the children of optants born after the passing of the law.
It was not till the signature of the treaty between Prussia and Denmark on January 11, that these intolerable Treaty of Conditions was ended.
By this treaty, the German January government undertook to allow all children born of Danish optants before the passing of the new Danish Nationality Law of to acquire Prussian nationality on the usual conditions and on their own application.
This provision was not to affect the ordinary legal rights of expulsion as exercised by either power, but the Danish government undertook not to refuse to the children of Schleswig optants who should not seek to acquire or who could not legally acquire Prussian nationality permission to reside in Denmark.
This adjustment, brought about by the friendly intercourse between the courts [ dubious — discuss ] of Berlin and Copenhagen, seemed to close the last phase of the Schleswig question.
Yet, so far from allaying, it apparently only served to embitter the inter-racial feud. The autochthonous Germans of the Northern Marches [ clarification needed ] regarded the new treaty as a betrayal, and refused to give the kiss of peace to their hereditary enemies.
After , German was the only language of instruction in schools in Schleswig. But the scattered outposts of Germanism could hardly be expected to acquiesce without a struggle in a situation that threatened them with social and economic extinction.
Forty years of dominance, secured by official favour, had filled them with a double measure of aggressive pride of race, and the question of the rival nationalities in Schleswig, like that in Poland, remained a source of trouble and weakness within the frontiers of the German empire.
After Germany had lost World War I , in which Denmark had been neutral, the victors offered Denmark a chance to redraw the border between Denmark and Germany.
The sitting government of Carl Theodor Zahle chose to hold the Schleswig Plebiscite to let the inhabitants of Schleswig decide which nation they, and the land they lived on, should belong to.
King Christian X of Denmark , supported by various groups, was opposed to the division. Using a clause in the Danish constitution that the king appointed and dismissed the Danish cabinet , and using the justification that he felt the Danish population was at odds with Zahle's politics, the king dismissed Zahle and asked Otto Liebe to form the Cabinet of Liebe to manage the country until a parliamentary election could be held and a new cabinet formed.
Since Zahle's had support from a small majority in the Folketing his Social Liberal Party and the allied Social Democrats felt that the king had effectively staged a state coup against the Danish democracy.
As Otto Liebe was unable to organise an election, M. Friis replaced him after a week, and succeeded in holding the election, and as a result the Social Liberal Party lost half their electoral support and their rivals the Liberal Party Denmark were able to form the minority cabinet led by Niels Neergaard: The whole affair was called the Easter Crisis of The Allied powers arranged a referendum in Northern and Central Schleswig.
No vote ever took place in the southern third of Schleswig, because the result for Germany was predictable. On June 15, , North Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule.
Germany continued to hold the whole of Holstein and South Schleswig , remaining within the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Danish-German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany following World War I which was never challenged by Hitler.
In the Second World War , after Nazi Germany occupied the whole of Denmark, there was agitation by local Nazi leaders in Schleswig-Holstein to restore the pre-World War I border and re-annex to Germany the areas granted to Denmark after the plebiscite — as the Nazis did in Alsace-Lorraine at the same period.
However, Hitler vetoed any such step, out of a general Nazi policy at the time to base the occupation of Denmark on a kind of accommodation with the Danish Government, and avoid outright confrontations with the Danes.
After Germany had lost World War II there again was a possibility that Denmark could reacquire some of its lost territory in Schleswig.
Though no territorial changes came of it, it had the effect that Prime Minister Knud Kristensen was forced to resign after a vote of no confidence because the Folketing did not support his enthusiasm for incorporating South Schleswig into Denmark.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Map of the Jutland Peninsula. In Danish, the region can be subdivided into Nord-, Midt-, and Sydjylland. Not to be confused with "Nordjylland", the latter roughly corresponds to the North Denmark Region.
North Jutlandic Island ; commonly reckoned as part of Jutland, although technically an island, since it was severed from the Jutland Peninsula in by a flood.
Denmark Middle Ages , part of the Duchy of Schleswig a fief of the Danish crown 13th century till ; German from until ; Danish since Southern Schleswig German since ; part of the Duchy of Schleswig a fief of the Danish crown until ; historically an integral part of Southern Jutland.
Schleswig-Holstein and Schleswig Plebiscites. Die Fürsten des Landes: Imperial Russian Foreign Policy. Retrieved 3 November Elements of General History, Ancient and Modern.
Retrieved 4 November Volume 12 International Publishers: New York, p. Volume 12 , p. History of the States of Germany. Historic states of Germany.
Retrieved from " https: At this time the population of Schleswig was Danish in its northern portion, German in the south, and mixed in the northern towns and centre.
The population of Holstein was almost entirely German. The duchy of Schleswig Slesvig was a dependency of Denmark in the 13th and 14th centuries, but from to it was united with Holstein.
After both Schleswig and Holstein were ruled as separate duchies by the kings of Denmark, although Holstein also remained a fief of the Holy Roman Empire and, later, from , a member of the German Confederation.
The Napoleonic Wars awakened German national feeling, and the political bonds that had existed between Schleswig and Holstein suggested that the two regions should form a single state within the German Confederation.
A countermovement developed among the Danish population in northern Schleswig and from in Denmark itself, where the Liberals insisted that Schleswig had belonged to Denmark for centuries and that the frontier between Germany and Denmark had to be the Eider River which had historically marked the border between Schleswig and Holstein.
The Danish nationalists thus hoped to incorporate Schleswig into Denmark, in the process detaching it from Holstein. This war between Denmark and Prussia lasted three years —50 and ended only when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Protocol of Under the terms of this peace agreement, the German Confederation returned Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark.
In an agreement with Prussia under the protocol, the Danish government in return undertook not to tie Schleswig more closely to Denmark than to its sister duchy of Holstein.
In , nevertheless, the Liberal government prevailed on the new Danish king, Christian IX , to sign a new joint constitution for Denmark and Schleswig.
Prussia and Austria were now able to intervene as the upholders of the protocol. In the ensuing German-Danish War , Danish military resistance was crushed by Prussia and Austria in two brief campaigns.
After the formation of the German Empire in , the Schleswig-Holstein question narrowed to a contest between Germany and Denmark over North Schleswig which had a Danish-speaking majority.
In , however, Prussia and Austria agreed to cancel this provision. The northern part of North Schleswig voted 70 percent to join Denmark, while the southern part voted 80 percent to remain within Germany.
The northern part of North Schleswig thus became part of Denmark. The resulting Danish-German boundary in Schleswig has lasted to the present day and is no longer a matter of contention.
We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.
Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article.
Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Read More on This Topic. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: